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GEOL& 101

APA Citation

Purdue Univeristy's Online Writing Lab (OWL) is one of the most complete guides to citation that you will find.


APA Citations and Reference List--here's how to do it!

The following pages walk through the details of making in-text citations and developing a reference page at the end of your paper. They contain numerous illustrative examples.

In-Text Citations: The Basics

  • Addresses the basic formatting requirements of using the APA Style for citing secondary sources within the text of your essay.
  • Provides guidance on how to incorporate different kinds of references to borrowed material, from short quotes to summaries of entire articles.

In-Text Citations: Author/Authors

  • Focuses on various details about referring to the authors of your sources within your essay, which can be a difficult task if the source has more than one author or has an unclear author (e.g., an organization).
  • Describes how to cite indirect quotes, electronic sources, and/or sources without page numbers.

Reference List: Basic Rules

  • Guides you through the general rules that apply to any reference list developed using APA Style.
  • Serves as a primer on formatting the sorts of references that will be described in greater detail at the pages linked below..

Reference List: Author/Authors

  • Walks through how to construct a reference entry for sources with a wide variety of author configurations.
  • Notes how references differ depending on the number of authors or if there are multiple works by the same author.

Reference List: Articles in Periodicals

  • Describes how to refer accurately to academic journal articles—a very important kind of source in scholarly writing.
  • Lists types of entries depending on the type of periodical (e.g., journal, newspaper, magazine, etc.) and the type of article.

Reference List: Books

  • Describes how to properly refer to book-length sources.
  • Addresses both the basic book format as well as requirements for unique book sources that require additional detail, such as translations or parts of multivolume works.

Reference List: Other Print Sources

  • Offers a short list of uncommon print sources with instructions for how to construct references for them.
  • Examples include indirect print citations (i.e., a print source that is cited in another) and government documents.

Reference List: Electronic Sources

  • Walks through the requirements and unique qualifications for constructing references for electronic sources.
  • Covers sources from online periodicals and scholarly databases to emails.

Reference List: Audiovisual Sources

  • Offers guidance on all manner of audiovisual sources, including sound recordings and YouTube clips. 
  • Also describes how to cite visual artwork hosted online.

Reference List: Other Non-Print Sources

  • Focuses primarily on how to reference uncommon non-print sources, including presentations and interviews.
  • Notes that personal communication (e.g. an interview or conversation) is not to be included in the reference list.

Citing Images